Has Forest Certification Reduced Forest Degradation in Sweden?

Peer Reviewed
30 April 2018

Laura Villalobos, Jessica Coria, Anna Nordén


This paper estimates the effects of the certification of nonindustrial private forest owners on forest degradation in Sweden—one of the countries with the largest total area of certified forests. We rely on official forest inventory data, information on certification status, and impact evaluation methods to identify the causal effect of certification on three key environmental outcomes. We find that certification has not halted forest degradation in that it has not improved any of the environmental outcomes. Moreover, for forest certification to have an effect, the standards should be tightened and the monitoring and enforcement of forest certification schemes strengthened. (JEL Q23, Q28)

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Sustainable Development Goals
Publication reference
Villalobos, L., Coria, J., & Nordén, A. (2018). Has Forest Certification Reduced Forest Degradation in Sweden? Land Economics, 94(2), 220–238. doi:10.3368/le.94.2.220
Publication | 27 January 2022