Climate change is one of environmental threats in agricultural activities; a sea level rise causing salinity or water scarcity will negatively affect agricultural production. Rice is the most important staple food in Asia; however, it is estimated about 15 million hectares of paddy production in lack of irrigation by 2025.
As a climate-smart agriculture and resource-conserving technology, laser land leveling (LLL) is considered as a well-suited technique for paddy production to adapt climate risks and mitigate GHG emissions. LLL reduces greenhouse gas emissions by energy saving, reducing cultivation time, and improving input-use efficiency, especially irrigation water.
The study investigates the determinants of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for LLL service and an understanding of how demand for LLL varies by individual farmers and plot features, especially the most common constraint of land fragmentation.
The results help to formulate policies by identifying effective factors and incentives to promote LLL implementation. The estimation of LLL benefits provides empirical incentives for both investment of the government and farmers to adapt to emerging climatic variability and mitigating GHG emissions in paddy production. The research results contribute to agricultural sustainability and poverty reduction through the improvement of input-use efficiency in paddy production.