In this study, the effect of galena mining with respect to heavy metal pollution of groundwater, surface water, soil and sediments in Enyimagalagu and Mkpuma-Akpatakpa Communities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria, was investigated to estimate the health and economic burden. The heavy metals were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The water quality of the groundwater and surface water was determined using the water quality index (WQI). The potential health burden was estimated by determining carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks via risk index (RI) and hazard index (HI), respectively. The potential economic burden was estimated using the value of statistical life (VSL) and cost of illness (COI). Obtained results revealed that the WQI of the groundwater and surface water ranged from 197 to 327 indicating very poor to unsuitable water for drinking. No non-carcinogenic risks were associated with exposure to the soil and sediment components of the environment. However, there were non-carcinogenic risks associated with the surface and groundwater, with the HIs ranging from 1.8 to 5.4. Based on the carcinogenic risk threshold of 10−6, there were carcinogenic risks across all the environmental media ranging from 8.4*10−5 - 2.1*10−3. The economic cost of heavy metal pollution ranged from 20.7 million USD (10.35 billion) to 543.3 million USD (271.6 billion) for the VSL, whereas it ranged from 0.141 million USD (70.8 million) to 3.72 million USD (1.86 billion) for the COI. These costs are quite huge and can be avoided via pollution abatement measures.