Despite the importance of naturally available wild pollination ecosystem services in enhancing sub-Saharan African smallholder farms’ productivity, their values to actual farming systems remain unknown. We develop a nationally representative empirical assessment by integrating nationally representative plot level panel data with spatially and temporally matched land cover maps to identify the contribution of wild pollinators to crop revenue.
Since the beginning of the decade, climate resilient green economy strategies have been proposed in many African countries. One of the pillars of the strategies is the adoption and diffusion of various climate smart agricultural practices for improving crop and livestock production and farmer income while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The effects of these innovations on household nutritional security, including gender-differentiated nutritional status, have hardly been analyzed.
Having a reliable supply of electricity is essential for the operation of any firm. In most developing countries, however, electricity supply is highly unreliable. In this study, we estimate the cost of power outages for micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using a stated preference survey. We find that the willingness to pay, and thus the cost of power outages, is substantial. The estimated willingness to pay for a reduction of one power outage corresponds to a tariff increase of 16 percent.
In empirical studies, survey questions are typically used to measure trust; trust games are also used to measure interpersonal trust. In this paper, we measure trust in different institutions by using both trust games and survey questions. We find that generalized trust is only weakly correlated with trust in specific institutions, when elicited both by using a trust game and by using survey questions. However, the correlation between trust in a specific institution elicited through a trust game and stated trust for the same institution is stronger and statistically significant.
Social influence affects individual decision-making on soil conservation. Understanding the emergent diffusion of collective conservation effort is relevant to natural resource management at the river basin level. This study focuses on the effect of subjective norms and collective action on the diffusion of Soil Conservation Effort (SCE) in the Lake Naivasha basin (Kenya) for the period 1965–2010. A geographically-explicit Agent-Based Model (ABM) version of the CONSUMAT model was developed: the CONSERVAT model.
The main objective of this study is to examine the driving factors of CO2 emissions in Ethiopia to promote sustainable development. This study, employees an integrated approach of the multiplicative product of Population, Affluence, and Technology (IPAT) identity as a framework using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM).
Good Solid Waste Management (SWM) practices are indispensable for maintaining quality environment and the health of urban dwellers in most developing countries, like Ethiopia. However, for successful implementation of adequate SWM options, households’ preferences and their Willingness to Pay (WTP) should be taken in to consideration. The main aim of this study was to analyse the preferences of households’ and estimate the WTP for improved SWM service attributes in the form of money income and labor effort using choice experiment approach.
Determination of fish landing price is important, as the same contributes to the structure, conduct and performance of the fish market in Lake Victoria. Determination of relevant landing price is a gap to console between fishermen, agents (middlemen), processors and the government.
This paper uses survey and experimental data from prison inmates and comparable
non-inmates to examine the drivers of rising criminality in China. We find that China’s
high sex ratios are associated with greater risk-taking, greater impatience and greater
neuroticism amongst males. These underlying behavioural impacts explain some part
of the increase in criminality. The primary avenue through which the sex ratio increases
crime, however, is the direct pressure on men to appear financially attractive in order
Our Beijing‐based laboratory experiment investigated gender differences in competitive choices across different birth‐cohorts experiencing – during their crucial developmental‐age – different institutions and social norms. To control for general time trends, we use Taipei counterpart subjects with identical original Confucian traditions. Our findings confirm that exposure to different institutions/norms during crucial developmental‐ages significantly changes individuals’ behaviour.