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Research to manage the Environment for Development

Recent publications


Individual status quo modelling for a rural water service in Rwanda: application of a choice experiment

Abstract: In Rwanda, rural water supply is not uniformly distributed. Rural areas are characterized by differences in the distance to the nearest water point and in water quality for domestic water, by watering frequency and water availability for irrigation water, and by the price for both. A household's perception of further improvements in water supply will, therefore, depend heavily on the situation it currently faces. The authors used a choice experiment to model how the individual status quo (SQ) affects preferences.


Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach

Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers.


The Effects of Groundwater and Surface Water Use on Total Water Availability and Implications for Water Management: The Case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

This study discusses the effects of water abstractions from two alternative sources on the available water volume around Lake Naivasha, Kenya: the lake itself and a connected aquifer. An estimation of the water abstraction pattern for the period 1999–2010 is made and its effect on the available water volume in Lake Naivasha and its connected aquifer is evaluated using a simple water balance modeling approach.


Accounting for spatial non-stationarity to estimate population distribution using land use/cover. Case Study: the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya

Remotely-sensed data can be used to overcome deficiencies in data availability in poorly monitored regions. Reliable estimates of human population densities at different spatial levels are often lacking in developing countries. This study explores the applicability of a geographically-weighted regression (GWR) model for estimating population densities in rural Africa using land use/cover data that have been derived from remote-sensing while accounting for spatial non-stationarity.


Supporting IWRM through spatial integrated assessment in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya

This study describes the mismatch between required knowledge and efforts by scientists and stakeholders in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. In the basin, integrated water resources management (IWRM) suffers from the absence of critically relevant knowledge. This study further presents a spatial integrated assessment framework for supporting IWRM in the basin. This framework resulted from an ongoing debate between stakeholders and scientists studying the basin's issues. It builds on jointly identified indicators for sustainable governance, and their interdependency, and knowledge gaps.


Farm households' preferences for collective and individual actions to improve water-related ecosystem services: The Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya

Interventions in payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs can involve both collective and individual actions. This study explores the potential for the development of payment for water related ecosystem services (PWES) program in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. Using a choice experiment approach, the willingness to accept compensation is estimated for three water-related ecosystem services (WES) attributes: one collective attribute (reforestation) and two individual attributes (environment-friendly agricultural practices and restoration of riparian land).


Firms’ willingness to invest in a water fund to improve water-related ecosystem services in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya

A valuation scenario was designed using a contingent-valuation approach and presented to decision makers in business firms in Kenya’s Lake Naivasha basin to test how applicable a water fund might be as a potential financing mechanism for a payment for water-related ecosystem services scheme. The findings indicate that measuring a firm’s willingness to invest in ecosystem services could help determine whether a firm would invest and engage with other stakeholders to pool their investments in ecosystem services.


Is Eco-Certification a Win–Win for Developing Country Agriculture? Organic Coffee Certification in Colombia

Abstract: According to advocates, eco-certification is a win–win solution to the problem of environmental degradation caused by developing country agriculture, improving both the environmental and the economic performance of farmers. However, these notional benefits can be undercut by the tendency of relatively wealthy farmers already meeting eco-certification standards to disproportionately participate.


An Analysis of Costs and Health Co-Benefits for a U.S. Power Plant Carbon Standard

Abstract: Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power plants can have important "co-benefits" for public health by reducing emissions of air pollutants. Here, we examine the costs and health co-benefits, in monetary terms, for a policy that resembles the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. We then examine the spatial distribution of the co-benefits and costs, and the implications of a range of cost assumptions in the implementation year of 2020.