Farmers in Nigeria
Farmers in Nigeria. Photo: Ebele Amaechina, EfD

Understanding the adoption and impact of multiple climate smart agricultural practices – Panel data evidence from Nigeria

EfD Discussion Paper
1 August 2021

Nnaemeka Andegbe Chukwuone, Hailemariam Teklewold, Anthony NwaJesus Onyekuru, Anthonia Achike, Ebele Chinelo Amaechina, Chukwuedozie Ajaero


Farm-level adoption of a portfolio of climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices remains important to climate change adaptation and agricultural development in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper uses nationally representative panel data sets in rural Nigeria to understand farm households’ decisions on choices of a range of CSA practices – such as cropping system diversification, improved seeds, and inorganic and organic fertilizers – and assess their combined effect on net farm returns using an endogenous switching treatment effects method. Our results reveal that the adoption of CSA practices differs according to the level of asset ownership and incidence of shocks. While adoption of an individual CSA practice increases income compared with non-adoption, the highest farm income was achieved when farmers adopted all practices jointly. We conclude that the adoption of multiple CSA practices can enhance farm income. 


Key Words: climate-smart agriculture; farm income; climate change; panel data; Nigeria.

Publication reference
EfD Discussion Paper 21-08
Publication | 25 August 2021