Skip to main content



Success factors for pairing conservation with enhanced forest and fish-based livelihoods

In settings in which people rely directly on either forest or marine resources, protecting both the natural resources and livelihoods is challenging. Findings from Tanzania suggest that, where budgets are limited, key factors for a successful combination of livelihood and conservation policies include the strategic location of livelihood projects that target those most dependent on the protected resource rather than those most likely to cooperate with access restrictions.


Lessons learned from investing in marine and coastal management initiatives in the East Asian Seas

The concept that underlies the interventions of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) International Waters Program is adaptive management at the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) scale across the sequence of interventions from assessment and analysis to development of regional strategic action programs and national implementation of action plans to address transboundary environmental concerns. The GEF has provided grants to recipient countries in the East Asian Seas region covering five LMEs since the early 1990s and amounting to about US$200 million. This paper analyses GEF support to the Seas of the East Asian Region to draw lessons for future investments in LME management.


    Measuring potential profits in a bioeconomic model of the mixed demersal fishery in the North Sea

    This paper measures for potential profit in the North Sea mixed demersal fishery for cod, haddock and whiting. Dynamic bioeconomic models for three UK fisheries are developed, incorporating both population dynamics and economic structure. Actual profit in 2006, for the three UK fleets included in the analysis, is estimated at £10.3 million. If the TAC remains unchanged but vessels are allowed to harvest at near efficient levels with fleet size reduced accordingly, potential profit is measured at £34.5 million.


    Kenya State of Environment Report 2010

    EfD-Kenya actively participated in the preparation of the Kenya State of Environment (SoE) Report 2010. EfD-K Researchers Dr. Wilfred Nyangena and Geophrey Sikei were authors in the report. Dr. Nyangena was the Lead Author for Chapter 11 of the report which dealt with Policy options for action. Geophrey was a contributing author in Chapter 11 and Chapter 6 dealing with Land, Agriculture and Livestock.


    The Centenary of Jens Warming’s Optimal Landing Tax in Fisheries

    This note acknowledges Jens Warming's contributions (1911, 1931) on what has since come to be known as the open access problem in fisheries. Warming, in a static framework, suggested an optimal landing tax before Pigou (1920) and described the sole owner solution later suggested by Scott (1955b). I describe these results using Warming's framework and point to his previously overlooked contribution concerning the dynamic aspect of fisheries.


    Reference-dependent behaviour of paua (abalone) divers in New Zealand

    We study dynamic labour supply using data on paua (abalone) divers in New Zealand. The divers face stable, flat prices per kilogram after each catch, but experience transitory wage changes due to varying weather and water conditions, and are free to vary their daily working hours and display an intermittent working pattern. We find nonlinear wage elasticities, rejecting the standard neo-classical prediction that these divers should work long hours during days when wages are high and quit early during days when hourly wages are low.


    The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas: An Example from Tanzania

    Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions.


    The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas

    Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions....


      Trust in the fisheries scientific community

      This paper explores the issue of “trust” in the fisheries science community, a key corollary of effective risk communication. It presents the findings of a survey undertaken in Iceland, Greece, Spain, United Kingdom and Faroe Islands during 2008. The findings reveal differing levels of trust and mistrust in the fisheries science community between countries and between stakeholder groups, demonstrating areas for future attention in the interests of improving fisheries science and management.


      CINTERA: A cross-disciplinary integrated eco-systemic eutrophication research and management approach

      CINTERA is designed to improve knowledge of ecosystem response to eutrophication and management of eutrophication in different marine fjord ecosystems and zones in Norway and Chile. The outcome of the field studies will be the determination of the most pronounced chemical and bioindicators of eutrophication in different conditions; this knowledge will give us the ability to improve monitoring activities in the future for early detection and management of the eutrophication problem.


      Bioeconomic model of spatial fishery management in developing countries

      Fishers in developing countries do not have the resources to acquire advanced technologies to exploit offshore fish stocks. As a result, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea requires countries to sign partnership agreements with distant water fishing nations (DWFNs) to exploit offshore stocks. However, for migratory stocks, the offshore may serve as a natural marine reserve (i.e., a source) to the inshore (i.e., sink); hence these partnership agreements generate spatial externality.


      A study on sustainable exploitation of marine finfish resources in Tanzania, Case study of Mafia

      Mafia island and Tanzania fishery ground is rich in variety of vertebrates and fish stock. Because of diversity and variety of these marine resources it is experiencing an increase in fishing effort particularly fishermen, fishing vessel and various fishing gear. This resulted from increase in indigenous and migrant’s fishermen and forces raise complexity in management. To reduce over exploitation burden the maximum level of effort enabling sustainable exploitation has to be determined to support measures like introduction of protected marine areas, restricting destructive gears and beach management unit already taken.


      Consequences of Subpopulation Structure on Fisheries Management: Cod (Gadus morhua) in the Kattegat and Öresund (North Sea)

      This study shows how cod subpopulations may have been eradicated as a consequence of the use of imperfect models for assessing stock assessment, depleting what was formerly a productive sea. The Kattegat and resund (North Sea) were chosen as study objects due to the combination of different exploitation patterns and the possible existence of separate stock units. The scenario was further elaborated by simulating the potential harvest of fishing for different long-run levels of fishing effort as well as stock size. The study clearly indicated that new policy instruments are needed but these instruments need to be carefully fine-tuned to take into account real biological as well as social factors.


      Regulatory Compliance in Lake Victoria Fisheries

      This analysis of the fishers’ compliance with regulations in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, gives support to the traditional economics-of-crime model and shows that the extension of the basic deterrence model can lead to a richer model with substantially higher explanatory power.


        Resource Rents and Management Regimes: The Case of the Western Channel Sole Fishery

        Understanding the economic and biological status of a fishery resource is critical to designing efficient management policies. In one such attempt, this article assesses current and potential rents in the sole fishery in the English Channel. The sole fishery is found to experience rent dissipation due to significant disinvestment in the stock and substantial fleet overcapacity. The analysis also investigates alternative paths of attaining the optimal stock level.


        What factors affect the decision making process when setting TACs? The case of Chilean fisheries

        Although failures and successes in fisheries management are related to decision making processes, these are rarely analyzed in detail and even less often following quantitative or semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we study the decision making process for Chile's most important fisheries using a binary decision model. This model evaluates the probability that an annual total allowable catch (TAC) will or will not be modified by the National Fisheries Council (NFC) based on biological, economic, and social factors.


        Who should pay the enforcement costs of environmental and natural resource management policies?)

        Implementation and management of an ITQ fishery involves significant and costly administrative activities.  These activities include formulating and implementing policy rules, monitoring and enforcement to deter illegal behavior, and economic and marine research.  In this project we construct a model of a competitive ITQ system to analyze how the distribution of administrative costs between the public and a fishing industry can affect the equilibrium in the quota market, including equilibrium level of administrative costs, and derive results about the optimal distribution of these


        Regulatory Compliance in Lake Victoria Fisheries

        This analysis of the fishers’ compliance with regulations in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, gives support to the traditional economics-of-crime model and shows that the extension of the basic deterrence model can lead to a richer model with substantially higher explanatory power.


        Technical Efficiency and the Role of Skipper Skill in Artisanal Lake Victoria Fisheries

        This paper studies technical efficiency and skipper skill (and explores potential proxies), using Tanzanian fishery data for the two major species, Nile perch and dagaa. The relative level of efficiency is high in both fisheries, and several observable variables linked to skipper skill significantly explain the efficiency level. However, given the rapidly depleting fish stocks in Lake Victoria, increased efficiency at the aggregate level is only possible if fishing effort is limited.


          Understanding the Basics

          Reform of the water and sanitation sector is occuring in many countries, and offers the potential to improve services to all. Of particular concern, however, is the sitation of the poor, and reform must be designed so that they recieve increased access to affordable services.


            Municipal water pricing and tariff design: a reform agenda for South Asia

            The water tariffs currently in use in most cities in South Asia are not accomplishing their principal objectives. They are not generating sufficient revenues to ensure that utilities can recover their financial costs. They are not sending the correct economic signals to households, i.e., that water is scarce and must be treated as a valuable commodity. They are not helping the majority of the poor households, many of whom are not connected to the piped distribution system. This paper describes the major elements of a package of pricing and tariff reforms that are needed in the municipal water supply sector in many South Asian cities.


            Small-scale Fishermen and Risk Preferences

            Using an experimental approach, we investigate the risk preferences of artisanal fishermen in Tanzania waters of Lake Victoria. The experiment concerns pairwise comparisons of hypothetical fishing trips that vary in expected mean and spread of the net revenue.


            Market Analysis Of Major Fish Product Markets In The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem. BCLME Project LMR/SE/03/02

            This report forms just one part of an integrated research effort on the BCLME fisheries being carried out by “The Consortium”. It is anticipated that, as the rest of the BCLME projects advance, new information relevant to this study will come to light. This is particularly true for project LMR/SE/03/03, for example. The Consortium wishes to reserve the right to update this marketing report if and when the relevant information becomes available.


            An economic comparison of the commercial and recreational linefisheries in Namibia

            The most important Namibian linefish species, the silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus, is currently heavily exploited, and in order to ensure its survival catch restrictions are being introduced. However, kob are exploited both by recreational anglers and by commercial vessels, and it is important to examine the economics of these fisheries in order to determine where catch restrictions will do the least harm to the economy.


            Towards an integrated sustainable management of fisheries

            This article discusses the underlying causes for the problem of managing fish stocks and the aim of fisheries management.It reviews some of the research development in the area and practical experiences. Further, it deals with the future challenges and discusses potential successful strategies and outlines the necessary conditions for actual progress from the current state.


            Scientists review controversial Chilean fisheries law

            A task team of international and local fisheries experts, including an EfD researcher, recently assisted the Chilean government with an extensive review of a new fisheries law, in a bid to help the administration address public concerns that an important amendment to this law was tainted with corruption. 


            Sustainable energy transitions to support the Climate-Resilient Green Economy Strategy

            Ethiopia aims to build a green economy and to follow a growth path that fosters sustainable development. Through the development of its Climate-Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) strategy, which is based on carbon-neutral growth, it envisions attaining middle-income status by 2025. Improving the productivity of the agricultural sector, protecting forests, expanding the coverage of electric power from renewable sources of energy and transitioning into modern and energy-efficient technologies are the main pillars of Ethiopia’s CRGE strategy. 


            Mixed strategy farming is best in face of climate change

            The South African node of the EfD network, the Environmental Economics Policy Research Unit at the University of Cape Town is working towards influencing South African policy in four key areas: climate change, biodiversity conservation, marine fisheries, and energy. One of the recent studies identified mixed farming as a crucial strategy to adapt to climate change, particularly for small farmers.


            Sustainable Fisheries Law Promotes Reliable Fishing in Chile

             “We make the connection between the fishers’ living conditions and the fish stock’s status.”  The newest EfD Center is not a newcomer to influencing fisheries policy.  The Research Nucleus on Environmental and Natural Resource Economics at the Universidad de Concepcion has been active for several years in bringing an economics perspective into fisheries management in Chile.