Martinsson, Peter, Martine Visser and Martin Kocher. 2009. “Social Background, Cooperative Behavior, and Norm Enforcement.” EfD Discussion Paper 09.
Studies have shown differences in cooperative behavior across countries and in the use of (and reaction to) a norm enforcement mechanism in cross-cultural studies.
The authors present data that prove that stark differences in both dimensions can exist even within the same town. They created a unique data set, based on one-shot public goods experiments in South Africa. Most of the group differences can be explained by variables for social capital and social environment, such as trust or household violence.