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Water

2013-12-30

Analysis of groundwater management and policies in India

Although groundwater depletion is a global phenomenon, India faces the challenge in its severest of forms. Studies by India’s Central Ground Water Board suggest that in some parts of the country, water tables are receding at 1 meter per year and that the majority of water resources in Northwest and South India are overexploited. Furthermore, two-thirds of India’s 1.2 billion people are involved in agricultural work and are therefore especially vulnerable to groundwater depletion and related climate fluctuations.

2012-10-14

Evaluating Water Reforms in Kenya

The Government of Kenya has been implementing wide-ranging reforms in the water sector in accordance with the Water Act of 2002. This study’s objective is to set the stage for long-term rigorous research in Kenya’s water sector by evaluating the performance of reforms in the sector.

2012-09-29

Water Sourcing and Sanitation in Rural Kenya

In Kenya, every citizen has a right to water, and the National Water Strategy commits to ensuring that the formal water supply system is accessible to everyone. However millions of Kenyans still don't have adequate access to clean, safe water and rural areas suffer the brunt of this lack of access. This project will explore household water sourcing and sanitation behavior using primary data collected from carefully selected Kenyan sites that optimize on water source and sanitation options.

2014-07-24

Resistance to the Regulation of Common Resources in Rural Tunisia

We examine the effect of the introduction of uniform water-charging for aquifer management and provide evidence using a survey-based choice experiment of agricultural water users in rural Tunisia. Theoretically, we show that the implementation of the proposed second-best regulation would result both in efficiency gains and in distributional effects in favour of small landholders. Empirically, we find that resistance to the introduction of an effective water-charging regime is greatest amongst the largest landholders.

2014-06-06

Risk perception, choice of drinking water and water treatment: Evidence from Kenyan towns

This study used household survey data from four Kenyan towns to examine the effect of households' characteristics and risk perceptions on their decision to treat/filter water as well as on their choice of main drinking water source. Because the two decisions may be jointly made by the household, a seemingly unrelated bivariate probit model was estimated. It turned out that treating non-piped water and using piped water as a main drinking water source were substitutes.

2013-11-15

    Water sharing agreements sustainable to reduced flows

    By signing a water sharing agreement (WSA), countries agree to release an amount of river water in exchange for a negotiated compensation. We examine the vulnerability of such agreements to reduced water flows. Among all WSAs that are acceptable to riparian countries, we find out the one which is self-enforced under the most severe drought scenarios. The so-called upstream incremental WSA assigns to each country its marginal contribution to its followers in the river.

    2012-08-07

    Nudging Boserup? The Impact of Fertilizer Subsidies on Investment in Soil and Water Conservation

    The new fertilizer subsidies in sub-Saharan Africa are intended to increase agricultural production and ensure development of a fertilizer market. Fertilizer adoption requires complementary inputs, such as investment in soil and water conservation (SWC), for efficient and optimal nutrient uptake, and many fertilizer subsidy programs implicitly assume that fertilizer subsidies crowd in such investments.

    2011-12-28

    The Impact of Price on Residential Demand for Electricity and Natural Gas

    Climate change will affect the supply of many resources that households consume, including electricity, and natural gas. Although price is considered an effective tool for controlling demand for many resources that households consume, including electricity and natural gas, its impact is poorly understood. Part of the problem is that demand is confounded by block pricing and the interrelated consumption of electricity and natural gas, which prevent easy estimation of price impacts.

    2011-10-24

    Diseño y gestión adaptativa de un esquema de pago de servicios ecosistémicos en Copan Ruinas, Honduras

    Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de una iniciativa de pagos por servicios ecosistémicos relacionados con la provisión de agua potable en la comunidad de Copán Ruinas, Honduras. La metodología para diseñar e implementar este programa se basa en un enfoque integral y de gestión adaptativa, compuesto por varios componentes: definición de objetivos y diagnóstico general, análisis de condiciones habilitadoras, diseño técnico del programa, implementación y evaluación.

    2011-05-23

    Use of Anthropometric Measures to Analyze How Sources of Water and Sanitation Affect Children’s Health in Nigeria

    We used 2008 DHS data sets to construct child height- and weight-for-age Z-scores and used regression analysis to analyze the effects of different sources of drinking water and sanitation on child health outcomes in Nigeria. We also calculated the probability of a child being stunted or underweight as our measure of malnutrition among children aged 0–59 months.

    2010-10-01

    Robust placement of sensors in dynamic water distribution systems

    Designing a robust sensor network to detect accidental contaminants in water distribution systems is a challenge given the uncertain nature of the contamination events (what, how much, when, where and for how long) and the dynamic nature of water distribution systems (driven by the random consumption of consumers).

    2010-05-15

    Robust placement of sensors in dynamic water distribution systems

    Designing a robust sensor network to detect accidental contaminants in water distribution systems is a challenge given the uncertain nature of the contamination events (what, how much, when, where and for how long) and the dynamic nature of water distribution systems (driven by the random consumption of consumers).

    2010-01-15

    Decision making under information constraints

    The purposes of placing sensors in water distribution systems vary from complying with water quality regulations, monitoring accidental contamination events, and detecting intentional contamination events.

    2009-08-11

    Decision making under information constraints

    The purposes of placing sensors in water distribution systems vary from complying with water quality regulations, monitoring accidental contamination events, and detecting intentional contamination events.

    2007-08-27

      Understanding the Basics

      Reform of the water and sanitation sector is occuring in many countries, and offers the potential to improve services to all. Of particular concern, however, is the sitation of the poor, and reform must be designed so that they recieve increased access to affordable services.

      2007-08-24

        Implications of Ethiopian water development for Egypt and Sudan

        This paper examines the implications for Egypt and Sudan of the development of Blue Nile water resources by Ethiopia. The long-term development program produced between 1958 and 1963 by the Ethiopian government in collaboration with the US Bureau of Reclamation is summarized.

        2007-08-24

          Why have some countries on international rivers been successful negotiating treaties? A global perspective

          This paper presents a typology of international rivers based on asymmetries in economic and political power among riparian states. This typology is then used, along with other factors such as the spatial location of riparians on the river, to explore the question of why some riparians on international rivers have been able to successfully negotiate treaties and others have not. The findings lend support to both economic and political economy explanations of cooperative action on international rivers.

          2007-08-24

            Playing chicken on the Nile? The Implications of Microdam Development in the Ethiopian Highlands and Egypt’s New Valley Project

            How Egypt and Ethiopia will defend or promote their interests in the Nile basin has recently become clearer. Egypt will again seek to create “facts on the ground,” this time a large new land reclamation and settlement scheme called the New Valley Project. Ethiopia too will create facts by proceeding with water resources development in the Blue Nile basin, including the construction of low-cost microdams. If Egypt and Ethiopia pursue these two unilateral initiatives, they may find themselves on a collision course that both may have difficulty changing.

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