The Tanzanian newspaper Daily News, one of the biggest English newspapers in the country, interviewed Razack Lokina, fellow reseacher and coordinator of the EfD center in Tanzania, and Hakan Eggert, resident advisor and fellow researcher of the EfD center in Tanzania, on over fishing of Nile perch in Lake Victoria.
The proposed study aims to assess the effects of conservation policies in the Ngorongoro’s Conservation Area in Tanzania to predict Maasai responses to future policies.
Determinants of Climate Adaptation and the Role of Information Provision in Overcoming Barriers to Adaptation
The project aims to better understand behavioral determinants and other factors impacting climate change adaptation and technology uptake by households in Eastern and Southern Africa. The results will help in designing relevant policies for successful adaptation, thus alleviating poverty and stabilizing incomes in the face of increasing threats from climate change effects.
Could provision of a micro credit induce electricity uptake? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in rural Tanzania
Against the background of low connection rates and low electricity consumption in recently electrified villages, the purpose of this project is to improve the understanding why people connect and invest in electric appliances and why they do not.
Water insecurity and quality is a major challenge in Tanzania. In this project, we concentrate on the supply by examining the potential for using low-cost behavioural interventions to improve water supply management.
The Impact of the System of Rice Intensification on Small-holder Farmers’ Welfare: Does Partial Adoption Matter?
This study will assess the determinants of partial adoption dynamics and its impact implications on yield and farm profit among rice farmers in Morogoro region of Tanzania using a unique panel data. We will build on the previously collected data set from the same farmers to gather additional information on the adoption choices and dynamics, but also build up a panel data set for a relatively cleaner identification strategy of the impact of System of Rice Intensification (SRI).
Recent literature on constraints to adoption of clean cookstoves points out liquidity and access to credit as the key factors explaining the low adoption rate of modern cooking appli-ances in developing countries .
Charcoal Consumption and Willingness to Adopt LPG stoves: Evidence from a Baseline Survey in Urban Tanzania
Use of biomass fuels such as charcoal has been documented to be a prime cause of deforestation and environmental degradation in developing countries. Yet there are low rates of adoption to more environmental friendly cookstoves.
The goal of this project is to link frameworks of community or group resource management rules and of individual incentives for resource conservation in response to policy to inform and improve the success of REDD implementation in Tanzania. The project’s direct connection to Tanzania’s policy process through collaboration with TFCG will expand the role of environmental economics capacity within that policy process and promote effective policies to address climate change through REDD.
Wildlife Corridors and Communities in the East and West Usambara Mountains: Toward Integrating Social and Biological Information in Conservation Policy and Priorities
The higher order goal of this project is to identify biodiversity conservation strategies on land surrounding protected forest fragments to determine the least cost approach improving conservation outcomes in the Usambara Mountains of Tanzania.
Wildlife Corridors and Communities in the East and West Usambara Mountains: Toward Integrating Social and Biological Information in Conservation Policy and Priorities
Forest fragmentation threatens biodiversity because many species cannot survive in small, disconnected patches of habitat. Within the biodiversity hot spot of the Eastern Arc mountains, the East and West Usambara Mountains contain many species in a highly fragmented forest. Decades of bird population data demonstrate that the forest fragments will continue to lose bird species even
Neoclassical microeconomic theory of the consumer postulates that a rational consumer maximizes utility subject to a budget constraint. The direct implication of this theory is that the source of the income does not affect consumption behavior.
What Drives the (Non) Adoption of Agricultural Technologies? Time Preferences and Social Networks in Rural Tanzania
The adoption of new agricultural technologies is instrumental in the process of adaptation to climate change. Yet, in eastern Africa the adoption rate have been very small. Besides institutional explanations, the recent literature has pointed out at the role of impatience we explore the relative importance of this explanation vis-à-vis an alternative explanation based on sharing pressure within social networks. A combination of lab and field experiments will be used to address theses questions.
In countries such as Tanzania, the vast majority of the rural population does not have access to basic household electricity. Could solar power serve as a substitute? We evaluate the socio-economic impact of distributing solar lights to households, with a particular emphasis on children's educational attainment.
Marine Protected Areas and Small-Scale Fishing Behavior: a Comparative Analysis between South Africa, Tanzania and Costa Rica
This thematic program examines marine resource conservation. This multi-center collaborative project, the first within this thematic program, focuses on improving policy to promote coastal conservation through marine protected areas (MPAs) and related management tools. Because signatories of the Convention on Biological Diversity have committed to establishing MPAs on 10 percent of their coastal waters, a widespread expansion of these areas is underway worldwide.
Despite the centrality of African parks and other protected areas to nature-based tourism, they capture only a fraction of its value. For this reason, national parks and other protected areas have mostly relied on fiscal transfers from the state to fund their conservation activities.
Land Conservation Technologies Adoption and its Impact on Smallholder Agriculture in Tanzania: A case study of REDD implementing areas
Land degradation is a major serious problem in Tanzania that contributes greatly to decline in productivity and poses a threat to rural livelihood and the economy at large given the importance of agriculture in the country
Sustainable financing options of the climate change and climate variability adaptation measures by rural smallholder farmers in Tanzania
A majority of the rural poor in Tanzania derive their income from agriculture. The most important input in the agricultural production is labour and the rain water. This situation implies that, very large proportion of population in the country is vulnerable to climatic change and variability. At the national level there exist various interventions in the agriculture sector to facilitate increased efficiency and productivity.
Tanzania is largely an agrarian economy where over 70 percent of the population lives in the rural areas. The mainstay of the rural economy is agriculture and livestock keeping, and the agriculture production relies almost exclusively on the rainfall. As a result, changes in the rainfall pattern have a direct and immediate impact on the agriculture production, which in turn impacts on the household welfare through income and consumption.
Effects of Deforestation on household Time Allocation among the Rural Agricultural Activities: Evidence from Central and Southern Tanzania
Trees in forested and agricultural landscapes are particularly important because they provide high values of environmental services and biodiversity. In this proposed study we want to establish the link between deforestation, time allocation to fuel-wood collection and agriculture. We will use a non-separable (non-recursive mode) to test the participation of households in fuel-wood collection and farming activities using data from Central and Southern Tanzania. We would like to analyze how labour time, gender composition of the household, seasonality and agro-ecological differences affect household labour allocation decisions
One of the policy measures adopted in the recent past by the government of Tanzania during the implementation of the Agricultural Sector Development Program and the Kilimo Kwanza Strategy is a subsidy to fertilizer and other agricultural inputs through the Voucher system
REDD – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – is a new form of payment for environmental services that has to potential to fund forest protection in Tanzania.
REDD – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – is a new form of payment for environmental services that has to potential to fund forest protection in Tanzania. REDD programs would build on the Government of Tanzania’s introduction of new forest laws that have enabled the implementation of Participatory Forest Management (PFM)Because any policy that slows forest degradation does so by limiting resource access bynearby forest-dependent communities, implementing REDD will require understanding those communities forest management/use decisions and their likely response to REDD policies, even if REDD policies funnel monies to those communities.
Protecting Peri-Urban forests and livelihoods: Spatial Enforcement Issues and Incentives for Community-Based Initiatives
This project stems from discussions with forest managers whose existing policies have not created the hoped-for incentives for locals to engage in enforcement of access restrictions by outsiders. This is particularly important for Kibaha’s forests because of their proximity to Dar es Salaam, a large city with high demand for charcoal and timber. Forest managers do not have mechanisms for influencing where local villagers harvest NTFPs; they also have little information on which to base their allocation of scarce patrol efforts.
The goal of the proposed project is to improve environmental sustainability and reduce rural poverty in Tanzania. The project seeks to achieve this goal by focusing on PFM, which has its main goal to increase forest stocks. The proposed project looks at the linkage between forest policies and standard on-farm economic effects. The project is therefore expected to increase understanding about how better forest managment impacts critical, standard economic objectives like investments and labor market development
Tanzania’s seven Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are governed by the same set of national laws and regulations, but face different opportunities and pressuresthat depend in part on location, the number of local communities dependent on the marine resources, and tourism opportunities.
Incentives to Cooperate with Marine Protected Areas As a Function of Location: Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park Case Study
As marine protected areas (MPAs) are applied in poor countries, and in particular in Mnazi Bay, Tanzania, managers recognize that the success of the MPA in protecting fish, biodiversity, and reefs stems from the response of local people – whether that response comes from direct enforcement activities or from incentives to cooperate with new restrictions. In Mnazi Bay, managers are combining enforcement of new regulations on fishing locations and technology with investments in community-based projects and resource management councils and widespread education efforts. In the terrestrial setting, integrated development-conservation projects (ICDPs) typically failed due to a lack of linkage between the development projects and conservation incentives and goals, leaving the development projects as compensation for losses associated with enforcement of access restrictions. MPA implementation seeks to avoid such failures and induce cooperation by focusing on projects that rely on healthy oceans and mangrove forests in addition to providing new technologies like larger mesh nets.
Booming Fish Exports and Relative Welfare of Local Communities: Empirical Evidence From Around Lake Victoria, Tanzania
The project aims at assessing the welfare implication of the booming fish export at the household level around Lake Victoria. With the experience of the pilot study conducted successfully last September by Andrea Mannberg –a Ph.D candidate who is also working in the project. Adolf Mkenda and John Mduma coordinate the project and other logistics for the final field work to be carried out in March-April 2008. They are in charge of organizing the term of interviewers from the Lake Victoria regions and also organizing the interviewee.
This paper aims at assessing the scope and the desirability of increasing tax on fossil fuel in Tanzania in the context of environmental fiscal reforms. A.F Mkenda, J.K Mduma and W.M Ngasamiaku are the lead authors in this paper. The paper will attempt to tackle three critical issues namely; (i) the extent that tax on fuel can boost government revenue in line with the quest for fiscal reform, (ii) the extent that tax on fuel can lead to reduction in fuel consumption, taking into account the existing substitution possibilities and (iii) the distributional impact of taxation on fuel, particularly its impact on the poor.
Following the 1998 National Forest Policy and the Forest Act of 2002, participatory forest management (PFM) is being introduced in Tanzania, yet little rigorous analysis has been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of PFM, in terms of both protecting forest resources and improving forest-dependent livelihoods and thereby reducing poverty.
Read about what EfD centers around the world have been up to during the last year in terms of research highlights and how our research relate to the Sustainable Development Goals.
Environmental loss: the cost to Tanzania’s economy by Salvatory Machathat Much of Tanzania’s economic growth is dependent on the natural ecosystems that allow the harvesting of resources such as water, timber, and fish from the environment. However, society often regards these resources as infinite and free, which can lead to their overexploitation, resulting in the ecosystems becoming degraded and unhealthy. The ripple effect can be felt through the entire economy.
The EfD Tanzania Report 2017 gives you an excellent overview of the centres´ achievements during 2017 ranging from interesting policy stories on how economic research is put to use around the world to collaborative research programs, a wide range of publications, and our academic capacity efforts.
Smallholder Agricultural Production Efficiency of Adopters and Nonadopters of Land Conservation Technologies in Tanzania
Promotion and supporting the adoption of land management and conservation technologies (LMCTs) among poor farming households has been considered to improve crop yields as well as production technical efficiency (TE). This article compares production efficiency between adopters and nonadopters of LMCTs in Tanzania. Using national panel data, the study applied stochastic frontier model to estimate the TE of adopters and nonadopters. The findings show that adopters of LMCTs had a relatively significantly higher TE (0.73) than their nonadopter counterparts (0.69).
Concerns about food insecurity have grown in Sub-Saharan Africa due to rapidly growing population and food price volatility. Post-harvest Losses (PHL) reduction has been identified as a key component to complement efforts to address food security challenges and improve farm incomes, especially for the rural poor.
In sub-Saharan Africa, urban recreational ecosystem services are browning and disappearing despite the global recognition of their importance. We study the availability, preference, and determinants of visitations to urban recreational ecosystem services in Dar es Salaam. The results show that, amongst the functioning and publicly owned recreational ecosystem services, there are botanical gardens and other open green spaces with greenery (e.g., trees, grass, or gardens) and sometimes with basic facilities such as benches.
Naturally Available Pollinator Decline Will Decrease Household Food Security and Increase the Gender Gap in Nutrition between Men and Women Who Head Smallholder Farm Households in Sub-Saharan Africa
This multi-country analysis studies the food security implications of natural pollinator populations in sub-Saharan Africa, where smallholder farmers rely on wild pollinators in the absence of commercial pollination services. The study specifies daily intake of energy, macro-nutrients, minerals and vitamins per household member, and identify differences in pollinator dependence in male- and female-headed households. Four key observations emerge. First, smallholder farm households produce a menu of food crops.
With increasingly improved cooking stoves (ICS) that aim to reduce fuelwood consumption by forest-dependent households, more evidence of what drives households to adopt ICS is needed. Using data from a representative sample (N=271) of households in a rural part of eastern Tanzania, we estimated a mixed logit model to take into account the limitations of the standard multinomial logit model and relaxed the restrictive assumption of the conditional logit model.
In this paper, we identify economic implications of the pressure to share resources within a social network. Through a set of field experiments in rural Tanzania we randomly increased the expected harvest of the treatment group by the assignment of an improved and much more productive variety of maize.
Perceptions of caretakers with different socioeconomic status about the harmful outcomes of fever in under-five children in Dodoma region, central Tanzania: A cross-sectional study
Background: Socioeconomic status can affect health in childhood through many different pathways. Evidence on how households differ with regard to socioeconomic status and the degree to which this difference is associated with investment in child health is essential to the design of appropriate intervention strategies.
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) typically reward landowners for managing their land to provide ecosystem services that would not otherwise be provided. REDD+—Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation—is a form of PES aimed at decreasing carbon emissions from forest conversion and extraction in lower-income countries. A key challenge for REDD+ occurs when it is implemented at a group, rather than an individual landowner, level.
As the world`s population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin. This article argues that Geographical Indications (GI´s) hold the potential to help transform the Tanzanian agriculture-dependent economy through the tapping of value from unique products, attributing taste and colour to place or regional geography.
Small-scale farming of mud crabs (Scylla serrata) has been suggested as an alternative income for resource poor coastal communities in East Africa. However, it and it is unclear if the present culture methods are profitable and ecologically sustainable at larger scales. Here we assess the two dominant culture methods (crab fattening in cages and grow-out farming in ponds) using economic and ecological analyses in Kenya and Tanzania.
What does it take to be heard in managing marine protected areas? Insights from Tanzania coastal communities
This paper explores the debate on participatory approach by presenting evidence from the local communities practices living within the marine protected area in Tanzania (Mnazi Bay Ruvuma-Estuary Marine Park). Five out of fifteen villages that exist in Mnazi Bay Marine Park were selected for this study after consultation with the park authority. Stratified sampling of villages was conducted based on the location from the Indian Ocean: three villages located close to the sea (sea front villages) and two villages located far from the sea (inland villages).
This study was carried to find out the impact of PES (Payment for Environmental Services) on the welfare of the communities in the Uluguru Mountains. The aim of the study is to assess the main objectives of the PES project which is to conserve the environment (forest) and reduce poverty. The assessment of the project is done by looking on the difference between the treatment group (those who participate in PES) and control group (households who do not participate).
This study considers the effect of household tobacco expenditure on food consumption in Tanzania. The study hypothesizes that the majority of Tanzanians belong to a low-income group and that any expenditure on cigarettes or tobacco is at the expense of basic necessities, especially food. To verify this hypothesis, we first compared various expenditure patterns as well as household size of nonsmokers and smokers.
This study considers the effect of household cigarette expenditure on food poverty indicators in Tanzania. We first compare expenditure patterns as well as the household size of non-smokers and smokers. We find that the majority of non-smokers and smokers have low incomes, and that the mean total per capita expenditure (proxy for income) of non-smokers is slightly higher than those of smokers.