Professor Jintao Xu, Director of EfD China/Environmental Economics Program in China (EEPC) and Senior Research Fellow, was invited as a panelist on the UN Climate Summit 2014 on September 23, 2014 on the thematic discussion session focusing on Climate, health and jobs and Economic Case for Action. Click below or this link: to watch the video from United Nations Webcast. Professor Jintao Xu speaks after 33 minutes.
New deadline for EfD's 2015 proposal submission is June 1, 2014. All proposals must be presented in the respective EfD Center Workshops before submission.
Huang Zhumei presented a paper entitled "Faced with serious inequality in rural China, can Forest Tenure Reform Reduce The Inequality?" on Sep 13, 2013 at the EfD Seminar Seriies organized by Environmental Economics Program in China, Peking University.
A US Study Tour for the Delegation of the Chinese Society of Forestry Economics, from April 29 to May 6, 2012
EEPC and Rights and Resources Group have jointly organized a US study tour for the delegation of the Chinese Society of Forestry Economics (CSFE) from April 29 to May 6, 2012.
Research on energy demand in developing countries is important for many reasons. The existing widespread use of solid energy sources (e.g. fuelwood, dung, charcoal, coal, leaves, twigs) in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in the developing world in general, has a number of environmental implications. Deforestation, disturbance in watersheds, indoor air pollution and loss of biodiversity are some to mention. On the other hand, climbing the “energy ladder” has implications for greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, understanding the pattern of household energy demand and its implications on the environment is crucial to formulate appropriate energy policies that affect household welfare, local environment and climate change.
Fuel Taxes and the Poor challenges the conventional wisdom that gasoline taxation, an important and much-debated instrument of climate policy, has a disproportionately detrimental effect on poor people.
A half day workshop was organized by EfD in Washington DC on April 21, 2011. Recent developments in forest management institutions in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania were presented. EfD-Ethiopia coordinator, Dr. Alemu Mekonnen presented a paper on Household Forest Values under Varying Management Regimes in Ethiopia.
The Environment for Development initiative arranged a Forest Tenure Impact Evaluation Workshop on April 21, in connection to the World Bank’s annual conference on land and poverty in Washington D.C. on April 18-20. Recent developments in forest management institutions in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania were reviewed during this workshop, and a potential impact evaluation program for forest tenure reform in East Africa was discussed. The workshop was held on Thursday April 21 and was open for all conference participants.
Since 2005, China has taken more bold moves in building institutional foundation for a more secure community and household tenure system improving forest governance. Facing with great challenges ahead and considering what form of grievance redress mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure that the forest institutions deliver the outcomes, EEPC, co-sponsored by Rights and Resources Initiative and State Forest Administration, PR. China, has organized the Conference on Forest Tenure and Regulatory Reforms: Experiences, Lessons and Future Steps in Asia on September 24-25, 2010.
In February 2009, EEPC prepared and submitted a report commissioned by SFA’s Forest Carbon Management Office.
”It has been widely acknowledged that lack of appropriate mechanisms and incentives in the state forest sector, as well as lack of secure forest tenure for farmers in the collective forest sector, underpin severe poverty in forested areas and unsatisfactory performance of forest resource conservation", says Professor Jintao Xu, the coordinator of EfD in China and one of China’s most prominent experts in forestry economics.
The impact of pecuniary and non-pecuniary policy instruments on the adoption of renewable energy sources in rural Ethiopia
Using randomized field experiment method, this study will investigate the impact of pecuniary and non-pecuniary policy instruments on the uptake of solar panel for residential lighting in rural Ethiopia.
Triggers and Outcomes to Collective Action in Common-Pool Resources Management: A Devolution Case of Collective Forests in China
This project studies determinants and consequences of collective action in forest management in China. The research focus is how cooperation could be triggered in the devolution process of titling forest management to households.
The aim of this project is to understand the characteristics and the driving factors of Chinese residential energy consumption. The data are collected by annual surveys from 2014 through 2016. The information covered includes: household characteristics, types of household energy, household energy use and expenditure.
As the largest coal consumer in the world, China is bothered by severe air pollutants emitted from coal combustion. Along with the regulation of industrial emission, emission from household coal use outstands in the contribution to air pollution. Policies addressing household coal use are issued, but their effects on coal use and social welfare are not clear yet.
The goal of this project is to generate evidence on households' willingness to pay (WTP) for improved air quality in urban Asia. This evidence is both critically important and timely because numerous cities in Asia now have alarming levels of air pollution.
This project will provide a systematic assessment over the impacts of the Three North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) on the economic development in northern China. We will be doing so by examining differentiated impacts of the program elements, such as forest types and project implementation schemes, on i.e.
In this project, we investigate the effect of urban rail transit expansions in Chinese cities on air quality. We also compare the magnitude of effects across cities and identify the factors behind the potentially heterogeneous effects. By identifying these factors, this project is expected to help policy makers predict the effects of potential new rail systems or expansions on air pollution.
Building a Forest Sector Model for China: Analysis of Domestic and International Impact of Forest Policy Change
The Objectives of this project are two folds. One is to establish the Spatial Equilibrium Model (SEM) for China’s domestic wood product markets that links domestic and international policy changes to demand, supply and trade of forest products in China. The other is to make forecast of forest products trade (including changes in demand, supply, imports and exports) in China, triggered by potential policy changes such as the ending of the “Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP)”, implementation of the “Collective Forest Tenure Reform” and “Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP)”. China’s policy makers and international community will be better informed with policy assessment tool like this.
The overall goal of this research is to: (1) Evaluate the externality costs from transportation in terms of congestion and vehicle emissions (2) Analyze the factors that influence individual’s transportation mode choice (in vehicle time, out vehicle time, automobile ownership et al) (3) Analyze the vehicle factors that influence in individual’s vehicle purchase decision (price, fuel consumption, size et al)? We believe the case study of Beijing will yield insights more generally transferable to scholar and practitioner theories about the role of environmental policy instrument in reducing negative externality in the field of urban transportation.
Economic and Environmental Impacts of Bioenergy in China: Implications for Land Use, Food Prices, and Policies
In this project we will investigate the effects of large-scale bioenergy production on land use, crop production, farm income, and for the environment over a 20-year horizon in China.
This project aims at (1) Documenting the main urban transportation challenges in China, public policies in this field, and evaluating the effectiveness of these policies; (2) Improving the assessment of transportation externality costs in China (with a focus on Beijing) based on a large scale urban household survey and a proper estimation methodology; (3) Developing an analytical and empirical framework which links private automobile ownership and behavioural transportation modal choice to enhance the understanding of individual’s travel demand choice, automobile purchase and use decisions; (4) Building capacities in China based on quantative and qualitative assessments of decision-making process in transportation policies to reach a better understanding of alternative policy instruments for reducing negative externalities from urban transportation.
The overall objective of the study is to provide the value of time estimates for automobile users on a congested road using a stated preference survey. The purpose of this study is to obtain the public preferences for time savings on a congested road, which we believe could provide important policy inputs for ongoing congestion pricing discussions in Beijing.
In this project we set out to find data that policymakers need to decide whether to retain and replicate and refine their driving restriction programs: reliable estimates of the costs these programs impose on households and the incidence of these costs across socioeconomic strata.
Cooperation and informal social institution: experimental evidence from rural irrigation canal management in northwestern China
This study aims to promote cooperation in the maintenance of irrigation canals in vast rural areas of north-west China.
The objectives of this field study are: (1) to implement a set of experiments to investigate the effect of the one-child policy on; (2) to collect data of peoples’ back-ground and in particular if they were born right before or right after the policy was implemented. By implementing this experiment, it is possible to estimate the effect of the policy in a set of preferences such as cooperativeness, risk attitudes and time consistency.
Beijing has notoriously severe air pollution and traffic congestion problems. Like many mega-cities in developing countries, it seeks to mitigate these problems by restricting vehicles from being driven one day per week based on the last digit of their license plate. Our project will use the contingent valuation method to estimate the cost this policy imposes on drivers.
RFF’s Center for Energy Economics and Policy (CEEP) has partnered with institutions in China to create a new collaboration dedicated to improving energy policy in China: the Consortium for Energy Economics and Policy in China (CEEPIC).
China's Climate Change Policies: Competitiveness and Distributional Effects - An Ex-post and Ex-Ante Analysis
Project Progress Report
This research project will experimentally investigate the actual consequences of the Maskin auction and the other two types of auctions, with both sealed-bid and dynamic-bid design, in the context of subsidy allocation for carbon reduction.
As an international metropolitan area undergoing rapid development, Beijing is facing a sharp rise in the volume ofmotor vehicles andmobility,which has become the major contributor to the air pollution in this city. This is evident in the recent ranking of Beijing as the most congested as well as the most polluted city in the world by the Millennium Cities Database.
Expected deliverables will include an edited book (5-8 chapters) and 3-4 papers submitted to journals.
Beijing’s rapid economic growth in recent years has induced enormous transportation demand. Nowadays, congestion and air pollution caused by increasing use of cars are perceived as some of the most pressing problems in Beijing.
In this research project EfD aims to draw lessons from land reforms in several Asian and African countries. The findings will be presented in a book edited by Professors Stein Holden and Keijiro Otsuka and titled "Land Reforms in Asia and Africa - Impacts on Poverty and Natural Resource Management".
This project aims at finishing surveying in 8-10 provinces, establishing a comprehensive database and building an equilibrium model with capacity to analyze Supply, Demand, Trade and Policy Change.
Read about what EfD centers around the world have been up to during the last year in terms of research highlights and how our research relate to the Sustainable Development Goals.
This study examines the impact of long-term exposure to resource scarcity on farmers’ cooperation. A
China adjusts its inflated renewable energy subsidies by Zhaoyang Liu
The EfD China Report 2017 gives you an excellent overview of the centres´ achievements during 2017 ranging from interesting policy stories on how economic research is put to use around the world to collaborative research programs, a wide range of publications, and our academic capacity efforts.
This paper uses year-to-year fluctuations in temperature within counties to identify its effects on economic outcomes of Chinese manufacturing firms. We find four primary results. First, profit exhibits nonlinear responses to temperature. Profit decreases with higher summer temperatures and increases with higher winter temperatures. With temperature bins as temperature variables, profit increases with temperature up to 12-15°C, and then declines at higher temperatures.
Using a three-period overlapping generations economy framework, we characterize an intergenerational welfare state with endogenous education and pension under voting. We show that although politically establishing Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) social security in isolation in a dynamically efficient economy will always reduce the capital investment and therefore the social welfare as expected, in contrast politically implementing education-pension policy package instead can improve both human and physical capital accumulation and social welfare over laissez faire.
Meta-analysis of livelihood impacts of payments for environmental services programmes in developing countries
Payments for environmental services (PES) programmes have been widely promoted over the last few decades in many developing countries. Improving the livelihoods of environmental services (ES) suppliers is not only seen as a side benefit but is often considered a prerequisite for the viability of PES. Yet, the ability to draw ‘overview lessons’ over the impacts of PES on livelihoods from literature review studies remains limited.
The Gram-Charlier Expansion (GCE) of the Gaussian density under GARCH framework has been widely used to model the conditional dynamic higher moments. Compared with other generalized distributions, GARCH-GCE models describe the dynamic equations of conditional skewness and kurtosis in a more direct way. While GCE function is not always positive, it is often squared and normalized in empirical studies. However, little attention has been paid to the fact that the higher moments of squared-GCE function are different from the original GCE function.
We propose a closed-form pricing formula for the Chicago Board Options Exchange Volatility Index (CBOE VIX) futures based on the classic discrete-time Heston–Nandi GARCH model. The parameters are estimated using several sets of data, including the S&P 500 returns, the CBOE VIX, VIX futures prices and combinations of these data sources. Based on the resulting empirical pricing performances, we recommend the use of both VIX and VIX futures prices for a joint estimation of model parameters.
Collective forest tenure reform and household energy consumption: A case study in Yunnan Province, China
The recent Collective Forest Tenure Reform in China has started the process of devolving forest management rights from village collectives to households since 2003. In this paper, we study the impact of the reform on rural energy consumption. Devolving forest tenure improves farmers' access to forest products on their newly acquired forestland, and is therefore expected to increase farmers' fuelwood consumption. The reform also allows farmers to adopt some revenue-enhancing forest technologies which may lead to energy switching in farmer households.
Does public transportation reduce vehicle congestion? Using a regression-discontinuity framework, we examine the effect of six subway openings on short-run congestion in Beijing between 2009 and 2015. We find that vehicle congestion drops sharply immediately after new subway openings. In our central specification, each of the subway openings decreased delay times by an average of 15% in the short run over the city of Beijing.
Chinese Local Residents’ Attitudes toward Shale Gas Exploitation: The Role of Energy Poverty, Environmental Awareness, and Benefit and Risk Perceptions
This study investigates Chinese local residents’ attitudes toward shale gas exploitation through an interview of 730 local residents in two counties of Sichuan Province (Weiyuan County and Gong County) and explores the determinants of their support or opposition. It is the first study in China to explore local residents’ attitudes, and we comprehensively identify underlying factors accounting for such attitudes, including energy poverty, environmental awareness, and risk and benefit perceptions.
In 2014, China became the world’s third country to realize shale gas commercial development, following the United States and Canada. So far, there has been a lack of comprehensive discussion on risk perception related to shale gas in China. This paper aims to understand Chinese residents’ risk perceptions toward shale gas exploitation. A survey was conducted with 730 interviewed participants in two counties of Sichuan province (Weiyuan County and Gong County).